News

EMAIL CONTACT:
Russell Callaway - r.callaway at juno.com - for information about membership in the CFA DNA Project
Cameron Callaway - cfaprojectfordna at gmail.com - for more information about the results or problems with the DNA webpage

 


NEW RESULTS
NUMBERS
CALLAWAY CONNECTIONS
NON-CALLAWAY CONNECTIONS
HAPLOGROUP
SNP TESTS
LINKS


NEW RESULTS

(update 1/29/12)

The Haplogroup for the Joseph Callaway Branch has now been revised and is R1b1a2a1a1b
The Haplogroup for the Peter Callaway Branch has now been revised and is R1b1a2a1a1a4
(for a description of Haplogroups see SNP Tests below)

208303 PETER CALLAWAY 1640 MD - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group

201494 PETER CALLAWAY 1640 MD - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group

55449 PETER CALLAWAY 1640 MD - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group

51226 JOSEPH CALLAWAY 1680 VA - This members DNA shows a connection to
Joseph Callaway 1680 of VA

184498 UNKNOWN CALLAWAY - This members DNA does not match any of our
current members, so a new International Group 19 has been formed

201186 WILLIAM CALLIWAY b: 1700 in Winterbourne Dauntsey, Wiltshire, England
This members DNA does not match any of our current members, so a new
International Group 20 has been formed

(update 7/11/10)

We have tested two members of our project for the SNP - Deep Clade Test which
is a more accurate Haplogroup test.
The Haplogroup for the Joseph Callaway Branch now is R1b1b2a1b
The Haplogroup for the Peter Callaway Branch now is R1b1b2a1a4
(for a description of Haplogroups see SNP Tests below)

161249 UNKNOWN KELLAWAY - This members DNA is a match with member 158078
however a common paper trail is not known. Both members of this group have been placed
in International Group 17

163795 UNKNOWN CALLAWAY - This members DNA shows no direct connection to
any of our current groups, however this members DNA has some similarity to Group 3b so
a new group International Group 3b1 has been formed.

165694 UNKNOWN CALLAWAY - This members DNA shows no direct connection to
any of our current groups, however this members DNA has some similarity to Group 06 so
a new group Group 06a has been formed.

166660 PETER CALLAWAY 1640 MD - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group

95309 and 60574 - Both of these members DNA show a direct connection to the
U.S. Joseph Callaway Group, however ancestry is not known so they have been placed in a new
group Joseph DNA Link

(update 6/7/10)

171890 ABRAHAM CALLAWAY (1761-1850) - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group, however his family has no paper trail to prove this. He has been
put into group Peter DNA Link to show connection to Peter without a paper trail.

(update 9/27/09)

158075 JOHN CALLAWAY 1794 NC - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group, however his family has no paper trail to prove this. He has been
put into group Peter DNA Link to show connection to Peter without a paper trail.

158078 UNKNOWN CALWAY - This members DNA does not not match any of our current members

(update 8/16/09)

154319 JAMES CALLAWAY 1798 IN - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group, however his family has no paper trail to prove this. He has been
put into group Peter DNA Link to show connection to Peter without a paper trail.

(update 6/21/09)

151579 JOHN V. CALLAWAY - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group, however his family has no paper trail to prove this. He has been
put into group Peter DNA Link to show connection to Peter without a paper trail.

(update 6/13/09)

149291 JAMES KELLOW Cornwall, England, UK - This members DNA, at 25 markers shows
numbers that are similar to the International Group 3a, however, with the one member
of International Group 3a that has 37 markers, the numbers do not match. A new group has been
created, International Group 3a1 to show similarity but a probable non connection.

150340 PETER CALLAWAY 1640 MD - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group

151579 UNKNOWN CALLAWAY - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group

(update 5/25/09)

147750 JOHN CALLOWAY NC 1802 - This members DNA shows no connection to any of
our current Groups. This Group is now being created as a separate U.S. line.

149291 UNKNOWN KELLOW - This members DNA (12 markers only) shows a possible
connection to the International Group 3a

150340 UNKNOWN CALLAWAY - This members DNA shows a direct connection to the
U.S. Peter Callaway Group

151579 UNKNOWN CALLAWAY - This members DNA (12 markers only) shows a possible
connection to the U.S. Peter Callaway Group

(update 3/27/09)

127720 WILLIAM KELLAWAY 1746 Piddlehinton Dorset, UK This members DNA
shows a connection to International Group 2

131563 JAMES CALWAY 1795 Somerset, UK This members DNA shows a connection
to International Group 3a

126966 Joseph Callaway 1680 VA This members DNA shows a connection to
Joseph Callaway 1680 of VA

123306 JOHN KALLAWAY 1757 Bovey Tracey Devon This members DNA
shows a connection to International Group 3

112353 GEORGE KELLAWAY 1770 NEWINGTON LONDON, UK This is
another member from International Group 6 that is a close match to the Peter Callaway Group

98354 JOHN KALLAWAY 1819 Bovey Tracy, UK This members DNA shows a connection to
International Group 3

114328 JOHN KELLAWAY 1727-1812 IOW This members DNA does not match any of our
current members, so a new International Group 18 has been formed

115248 UNKNOWN, UK This members DNA does not not match any of our current members


NUMBERS

We now have over 100 members in our Y-DNA and MtDNA project from the
US, UK, France and Canada
We have established modal haplotypes for both of our US lines:
The Joseph Callaway 1680 VA group now has 16 members
The Peter Callaway 1640 MD group now has 17 members
Our Internationals have been grouped into 21 basic DNA lines and we are attempting
to establish modals for each. The Internationals group now has 45 members
Our mtDNA project has 5 members


CALLAWAY CONNECTIONS

From our results so far we have been able to establish a DNA link with the Peter Callaway MD
line and one International family (KELLAWAY) from International Group 6. This DNA shows
that the American Peter Callaway most likely had an English origin prior to immigration and a
possible different spelling of the name from Callaway to Kellaway. We are currently working
on a paper trail to link the two families and to prove this origin . One additional interesting result
we have achieved so far, is that when you compare the DNA of the Peter Callaway MD branch
and the Joseph Callaway VA branch, they do not match. The long held theory that the two
American branches of the family, had a common Callaway ancestor has now been dis-proven
by our project. This shows the power of DNA technology to sort out the families into their proper
groups and gives the genealogist the ability to focus their paper trail search to known connections.


NON-CALLAWAY CONNECTIONS

So far, a connection with the U.S. Joseph Callaway group and the International C/Kallaways has
been elusive, however an interesting non-callaway match has been found. The DNA for the
Joseph group has a very close match with 2 International members of a RALLS family. Our
Joseph Callaway group member 20058 has only one marker difference and members 17551
and 44983 have a two marker difference in 37 with the RALLS group. The two Ralls
matches 71003 and 74006 come from the RALLS DNA project Group 4 showing two English
families that later moved to Australia and New Zealand. This is an important connection since
the two RALLS families were Non-American lines and that would make the DNA connection
with the Joseph Group prior to immigration to America (pre 1680) and help in narrowing
down where in England the Joseph Branch is from.


HAPLOGROUP

The Haplogroup for the Joseph Callaway Branch is R1b1b2a1b (SNP verified)
Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to
have expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum
10-12 thousand years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype.

The Haplogroup for the Peter Callaway Branch is R1b1b2a1a4 (SNP verified)
Haplogroup R1b is the most common haplogroup in European populations. It is believed to have
expanded throughout Europe as humans re-colonized after the last glacial maximum 10-12 thousand
years ago. This lineage is also the haplogroup containing the Atlantic modal haplotype.

The Haplogroup for African American Group is E3a (STR prediction)
Haplogroup E3a is an African lineage. It is currently hypothesized that this haplogroup dispersed south
from northern Africa within the last 3,000 years with the Bantu agricultural expansion. E3a is also the
most common lineage among African Americans. It can be found at its highest frequency in Senegal
and is also found at a very low frequency in North Africa and the Middle East.

The Haplogroup for International Group 01 is I1a (STR prediction)
The I1a lineage likely has its roots in northern France. Today it is found most frequently within
Viking / Scandinavian populations in northwest Europe and has since spread down into Central and
Eastern Europe, where it is found at low frequencies.

The Haplogroup for International Group 13 is G (STR prediction)
This lineage may have originated in India or Pakistan, and has dispersed into central Asia, Europe, and the
Middle East. The G2 branch of this lineage (containing the P15 mutation) is found most often
in the Europe and the Middle East.

The Haplogroup for International Group 19 is E1b1b1 (STR prediction)
This haplogroup probably originated in eastern Africa and is about 25,000 years old. It expanded into
the Mediterranean during the Pleistocene Neolithic expansion. It is currently distributed around the
Mediterranean, southern Europe, and in north and east Africa. Lineages that do not belong to any of
this haplogroup’s branches are found mainly in eastern and southern Africa.


SNP TESTS

The majority of the DNA in the Callaway Family Project is listed by
what are called S.T.R.'s (Short Tandem Repeats). When our DNA is analyzed the scientists do not look
at every letter in our DNA sequence, they only look at specific sections. In each of these sections
the DNA will repeat itself, so the scientists count the number of times each section of DNA repeats
and that number then becomes our results. In this example of our DNA charts you can see this by looking
at the columns labeled 393 to 439, which are the sections on the DNA we had tested. By looking at the
numbers of repeats in each row for each of those sections you can see each of our DNA members results.



In order for two males to be related and share a common ancestor they should have the same number of repeats in each column
compared, and are allowed no more than three differences in those numbers before they are thought of as being unrelated.
So if you look at our main DNA charts each members repeat numbers are compared to all of the other members of our DNA project
and they are then grouped together based on similarity. (A difference will be noted by a highlighted number in the charts)
If you look at the main DNA charts you will also see a column labeled HG, which stands for Haplogroup. When a genealogist looks
at different families the first thing they look at is the surname to begin determining a persons family tree. In contrast, when a scientist looks
at a persons DNA they look to the Haplogroup to determine an individuals family tree. So if you are from the Joseph Callaway family
in the example above, to a genealogist your name is "Callaway or Calloway", however to a genetic scientist your name is "R1b1b2 ".

The following chart from Family Tree DNA is called a Phylogenetic Tree and shows the Family Tree and Haplogroups of every male
human on the planet earth.


At the top of the chart is the letter "Y" which is the piece of DNA that only males have because it is transferred only between
Fathers to their Sons. It is at the top of the tree because it represents the oldest ancestor that all human males descend from.
Each branch under the "Y" has an m with some numbers beside it (i.e. m42). These m### numbers represent mutations or
changes in a persons DNA and any of these mutations that occur will be transferred to all descendants in that branch.

In genealogy when a Callaway Father has a son his name is typically transferred to this son and he becomes a Callaway as well.
Genetically speaking when a father has a son he gives him his DNA called the "Y Chromosome", and if any mutation or change
occurs(this is a natural process) on his DNA he will pass this along to his son as well. So by tracing the roots of the Callaway
name until the records run out or surnames are non existent you can find your ancestors by traditional means. With Genetics by
following the mutations on the Phylogenetic Tree we can trace our Callaway ancestors back to the one Male who is the ancestor
of all males on the planet.

As we learned above most of the Callaway DNA test's have been S.T.R.'s (Short Tandem Repeats),
however recently we have tested a few members for what are called S.N.P.'s, Single Nucleotide
Polymorphisms. SNP's are mutations or changes in DNA that are slower and more accurate over time than S.T.R.'s.
This accuracy and slow rate of change allows SNP's to be used in determining a persons deep ancestry, and are the basis of
how the Haplogroups are formed for the Phylogenetic Tree. If you look at the main Callaway DNA results chart, you will see
that most of the members listed in the Joseph Callaway Group have the letters "R1b1b2" in the HG column. This Haplogroup
is based on the STR's and is only a prediction of what the haplogroup should be. In order to be sure, we had to get the more
accurate test done, the SNP test, also known as a "Deep Clade Test", and this is what we have done for a couple of members
of our Callaway DNA project. ID#'s 17551 from the Joseph Group and ID# 46937 from the Peter Group.

So If you look at 17551 his Haplogroup is different from the others in the Joseph group and is listed as "R1b1b2a1b".
His haplogroup is accurate and not a logical guess, and was achieved by scanning his DNA for known mutations (changes)
and his genetic ancestry was then traced on the Phylogenetic Tree. This is shown here in the "R" section of the Phylogenetic
tree from the actual results from our DNA testing lab (Family Tree DNA) for the Joseph Callaway Group.

In this chart the upper-case letter “R” is the major haplogroup (the same R that is on the big Phylogenetic Tree) and the single numbers
and lower case letters under the R, are the subgroups. Each of those letters and numbers listed is a different mutation or genetic generation,
and to a Genetic Genealogist this haplogroup R1b1b2a1b would be considered the surname of the Joseph Callaway family because it
shows all the ancestral mutations that this individual tested positive for.

Our other member tested for the SNP test was ID#46937 who is a descendant of the Peter Callaway Group. So if you look at his
Haplogroup R1b1b2a1a4, this would be the genetic surname of the Peter Callaway family. Here is the Peter Callaway location on the
Phylogenetic Tree from the Family Tree DNA results.

If you look at the two Haplogroup charts for the Joseph Callaway Group and the Peter Callaway Group, you will notice that they look like they
are not far apart on this tree and have a common ancestor labeled [P310 ^] [P311 ^]. The problem with this and the problem with using
SNP Haplogroups for genealogy is that the time frame for the distance to the common ancestor, (R1b1b2a1) [P310 ^] [P311 ^] for the
Peter and Joseph Group is about 3,100+ years. Since this is before surnames existed, this is confirmation that the Joseph Callaway and
Peter Callaway Groups have a common surname only by coincidence and not by family relation. Since most of our results in the CFA DNA
project come from S.T.R.'s and not S.N.P.'s, we are more concerned with DNA connections in recent history while surnames existed, however
SNP's allow us as genealogists to trace back our ancestry to as far a we possibly can. STR's deal with DNA in the hundreds of years to the
thousands, while SNP's show us DNA results in the thousands to the tens or even hundreds of thousands of years.

 


LINKS


This is a link to the faq section of Family Tree DNA dealing with Haplogroups

http://www.familytreedna.com/snps-r-us.aspx

 

This is a link to the Current Phylogenetic tree for the male Y-Chromosome in pdf format from Family Tree DNA
This shows the current ancestry of all males on the planet.
(pdf file size 2.7mb)

http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf-docs/2009-Y-Chromosome-Phylogenetic-Tree.pdf


This is the National Geographic DNA project named the The Genographic Project
This is a good website that allows you to trace the migration of our ancestors based on their haplogroup

https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com


This is a phylogenetic tree in web based format by The International Society of Genetic Genealogy

http://www.isogg.org/tree/


This website shows more detailed information on Haplogroup R1b.
R1b is the main haplogroup shared by the majority of people with european ancestry and is the haplogroup
shared by the majority of the members in the CFA DNA project

http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml#R1b-subclades